History of Internet & Programming
|Internet history||home - top of the page -|
- history of the Internet
• http://www.isoc.org/internet/history/index.shtml - index of Internet Histories - All About internet.
• http://www.internetvalley.com/intval1.html - very good and short history with pictures (and the role of Al Gore)
• http://www.internetvalley.com/archives/mirrors/davemarsh-timeline-1.htm - very good timeline
• http://dir.yahoo.com/Computers_and_Internet/Internet/History/ - history of Internet on Yahoo
• http://www.davesite.com/webstation/net-history.shtml - history of internet - mostly from network perspective
• http://www.isoc.org/guest/zakon/Internet/History/HIT.html - growth in numbers and charts
1964 - MIT, Leonard Kleinrock - packet switching theory (theoretical feasibility of communications using packets rather than circuits).
1967 - MIT, Lawrence G. Roberts, plan for the "ARPANET" (ARPA = Advanced Research Projects Agency)
1967 - First node of ARPANET at UCLA (University of California), second - at Stanford Research Institute (SRI, California).
1969 - 4 computers are connected
1972 - first email, public demonstration of ARPANET
1973 - Ethernet technology developed by Bob Metcalfe at Xerox PARC. The original paper by Cerf & Kahn described one protocol, called TCP. David Clark and his research group at MIT set out to show that a compact and simple implementation of TCP was possible.
1976 - Kleinrock published the first book on the ARPANET, which described different protocols
1977 - 100 Hosts.
1980 - TCP/IP was adopted as a defense standard, Internet has ~ 20 networks
1981 - BITNET, which linked academic mainframe computers in an "email as card images" paradigm.
1982 - DCA and ARPA adopts TCP/IP
1983 - transition of the ARPANET host protocol from NCP to TCP/IP.
1984 - 1,000 Hosts, DNS is introduced.
1985 - internet has ~300 networks
1986 - 5, 000 Hosts. 241 News groups.
1986-88 - scientific organizations (NSF, universities) adopt DARPA's existing Internet organizational infrastructure, Federal agencies shared the cost of common infrastructure, such as trans-oceanic circuits, Federal Networking Council was formed.
1987 - 28,000 hosts.
1988 - a National Research Council committee, chaired by Kleinrock and with Kahn and Clark as members, produced a report commissioned by NSF titled "Towards a National Research Network,
1989 - 100,000 Hosts. Tim Berners-Lee (CERN) writes an "Information Management: A Proposal".
1990 - 300,000 Hosts, 1,000 News groups. Tim Berners-Lee (CERN) starts to work on a hypertext GUI browser+editor using the NeXTStep development environment. He makes up "WorldWideWeb" as a name for the program. Robert Cailliau is co-author of new version. Original version was written on NeXT cube computer.
1992 - Number of hosts breaks 1 Million. News groups 4,000. Line-mode browser, GUI client for X-windows
1993 - 2 Million Hosts, 600 WWW sites. Internet has ~20,000 networks. The first browsers, Viola and Midas, were released in January 1993 for the X - Window system (Unix). NCSA Mosaic browser released. Declaration by CERN's directors that WWW technology would be freely usable by anyone, with no fees being payable to CERN. By the end of the year network has 200 web (http) servers.
1994 - 3 Million Hosts, 10,000 WWW sites. 10,000 News groups. A National Research Council report, again chaired by Kleinrock (and with Kahn and Clark as members again), Entitled "Realizing The Information Future: The Internet and Beyond". It anticipated the critical issues of intellectual property rights, ethics, pricing, education, architecture and regulation for the Internet. ~1500 web servers. Marc Andressen and Jim Clark form Mosaic Communications Corp. (future Netscape Communications).
1995 - 6.5 Million Hosts, 100,000 WWW Sites. NSF's privatization policy culminated in April, 1995, with the defunding of the NSFNET Backbone.
1996 - 12.8 Million Hosts, 0.5 Million WWW Sites. Microsoft enters.
1997 - 19.5 Million Hosts, 1 Million WWW sites, 71,618 Newsgroups.
2000 - 100 Million Hosts, 25 Million WWW sites.
2009 - 25 billion pages, more than 110 million web sites (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Wide_Web), ~1.7 billion users worldwide (http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm)
|more on Internet history||home - top of the page -|
Internet Timeline - starting in 1950, tracing the events that lead
to the Internet of today.
- Brief History of the Internet - from the Internet Society.
- Internet Archive - building a digital library for the future.
- NetHistory - A page dedicated to the preservation of Internet and BITNET history. Lots of online magazines, documentation, stories.
- Nerds 2.0.1: A Brief History of the Internet