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The TRIZ Inventive Principles

G.S Altshuller (1969-1973)

1. Segmentation

Divide an object into independent parts /sections

2. Extraction

Remove or separate only the necessary "troublesome" part or property from an object

3. Local Quality

Transition from a homogeneous structure of an object (or outside environment/ action ) to a heterogeneous structure when various parts carry out different functions under the most favorable conditions for its operation

4. Asymmetry

Replace a symmetrical form with an asymmetrical one, or increase the degree of asymmetry .

5. Combination

Combine in space (or in time) homogeneous objects, or objects destined for contiguous operations

6. Universality

Have the object perform multiple functions, thereby eliminating the need for some other object(s)

7. Space hierarchy

a. Contain the object inside another which, in turn, is placed inside a next object , etc.

b. Pass an object through a cavity of another object

8. Counterweight

Compensate for the object's weight by joining with another object that has a lifting force or by interaction with an environment providing aero- / hydro-dynamic forces

9. Prior action or counter-action

a .Perform a counter-action or carry out all or part of the required action in advance

b. Arrange objects so they can act timely and from a convenient position

c. Compensate a low object reliability by countermeasures taken in advance

10. Use strong oxidizers

Replace normal air with enriched air / oxygen / ionized oxygen

11. Inert environment

Replace the normal environment with an inert one or by vacuum

12. Equipotentiality

An object should not moved vertically

13. Inversion

a. Make an opposite action to the action dictated by the problem specifications

b. Make a moving part of the object or the outside environment immovable and vice versa

c. Turn the object upside-down

14. Spheroidality

a. Replace linear/ flat/ parallelepiped parts with curved ones

b. Use rollers, balls spirals

c. Replace a linear motion with rotation; utilize a centrifugal force

15. Dynamicity

a. Fit an object or its environment automatically to optimal performance at each operation

b. Divide an object into elements which can change position relative to each other

c. If an object is immovable, make it movable or interchangeable

16. Partial or overdone action

If it is impossible to get 100% effect, do somewhat more or less to simplify the problem

17. Shifting to a new dimension

a. Increase the degree of freedom of the object. or use all its planes

b. Use a multi-layered objects assembly instead of a single layer

c. Incline the object or turn it on its side

18. Mechanical vibration

a. Set an object into oscillation, or increase the frequency of existing oscillation

b. Use ultrasonic vibrations in conjunction with an electromagnetic field

c. Utilize the resonant frequency

d. Instead of mechanical vibrations use piezoelectric vibrators

19. Periodic action

a. Replace a continuous action with a periodic (pulsed) one

b. Use pauses between impulses to provide additional action

20. Continuity of a useful action

a. Carry out an action continuously when all parts of an object operate at full capacity

b. Remove idle and intermediate motions

21. Rushing through

Perform hurtful or hazardous operations at the highest possible speed

22. Convert harm into benefit

a. Utilize hurtful factors or environmental effects to obtain a positive effect

b. Remove a hurtful factor by combining it with another harmful factor

c. Increase the amount of harmful action until it ceases to be hurtful

23. Feedback

Introduce or reverse feedback

24. Go-between

a. Use an intermediary object to transfer or carry out an action

b. Temporarily connect an object to another one that is easy to remove

25. Self-service

An object services itself and carries out supplementary operations using wasted material and energy

26. Copying

a. Replace an expensive object by a collection of inexpensive ones, back out some properties (e.g. longevity)

b. Use a simple and inexpensive / optical / copy (with a suitable scale) instead of an object that is complex, expensive, fragile or inconvenient to operate.

27 . Homogeneity

Make those objects that interact with a primary object of the same or similar material

28. Replacement of a mechanical system

a. Replace a mechanical system with an optical, acoustical or tactile (smell) system

b. Use an electrical, magnetic or electromagnetic field for interaction with the object

c. Replace stationary fields with alternate fields, and random fields with structured fields

d. Use a field in conjunction with ferromagnetic particles

29. Pneumatic or hydraulic construction

Replace solid parts with gas or liquid e.g., for inflation, or use air or hydrostatic cushions

30. Flexible membranes or thin film

Replace traditional constructions with new made of flexible membranes or thin film, e.g., for isolation an object from its environment

31. Use of porous or composite materials

a. Make an object porous/ composite or add porous elements (inserts, covers, etc.)

b. A porous object fill with a substance in advance

32. Changing a color

Change a color or transparency of an object or its surroundings, or use colored additives or luminescent traces to observe objects or processes that are difficult to see

33. Rejecting and regenerating parts

a. Reject or modify (e.g. discard, dissolve, evaporate) an element / object when it completed its function or became useless,

b. Immediately restore any exhausted (or depleted) part of an object

34. Transformation of the physical or/and chemical states of an object

Change an object's aggregate state, density distribution, degree of flexibility, temperature

35. Phase transitions

Carry out an effect developed during the phase transition

36. Thermal expansion

a. Use a material which expands or contracts with heat

b. Use various materials with different coefficients of heat expansion

Please, note that this list and the initial Altshuller's list are little different.

Selection by  S.D. Savransky (1982-1994)